Coronary angiography is an X-ray examination of the blood vessels or chambers of the heart. A very small tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel in your groin or arm. The tip of the tube is positioned either in the heart or at the beginning of the arteries supplying the heart, and a special fluid (called a contrast medium or dye ) is injected.This fluid is visible by x-ray, and the pictures that are obtained are called angiograms.
Coronary angiography is done to find a blockage in the coronary arteries, which can lead to heart attack. It may be done if you have unstable angina, atypical chest pain, aortic stenosis, or unexplained heart failure.
Local drug delivery
Embolization of drugs
Balloon angioplasty is similar to stent implantation except without stent. Catheter / tube can be inserted to deliver drugs or to embolize substances in a particular blood vessel beds eg. Lytic agents to digest clot or emboli to block haemoralgic vessels.
PCI Procedural refinements: Stent
Expandable metal mesh tubes that buttresses the dilated segment, limit restenosis.
Drug eluting stents: further reduce cellular proliferation in response to the injury of dilatation.
Implantation of Pacemaker
Comparison with non invasive CT Angiogram
Invasive angiogram provides:
More detailed images of blood vessels studied.
Ready avenue for interventions such as ballooning / stenting.
Slightly more discomfort due to punctured wound and immobilization in bed.
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